# Course Offerings

## Undergraduate

- 2 Credits Physics: the Genesis of Technology PH-UY1002
- This course introduces contemporary topics in physics, along with readings and discussions of topics with technological implications.

Prerequisite: Only first-year students are permitted to enroll in this introductory level course. - 3 Credits Mechanics PH-UY1013
- This course is the first of a three-semester lecture sequence in general physics for science and engineering students. Motion of particles and systems of particles. One-dimensional motion. Vectors and two-dimensional motions. Forces and acceleration. Conservation of energy and momentum. Rotations. The free and driven harmonic oscillator. Gravitation. (This class meets four hours per week for lectures and recitation.)

Prerequisites: MA-UY 1024 or an approved equivalent. Corequisites: MA-UY 1124 or approved equivalent, and EX-UY 1 - 3 Credits Motion and Sound PH-UY1213
- PH-UY 1213 Motion and Sound. (3:0:1:3) First of a two courses introductory sequence in general physics for majors other than science or engineering. (Not an acceptable substitute for PH-UY 1013) One-dimensional motions. Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motions. Newton's Laws of motion. Conservation Laws of Energy and Momentum. Collisions. Rotational motions. Gravity. Statics and Elasticity. Fluids. Oscillations. Mechanical Waves. Superposition and Standing Waves. Sound and Acoustics.

Co-requisite: EX-UY 1. - 3 Credits Electricity and Light PH-UY1223
- Second of two introductory courses in general physics for non science or engineering majors. (Not an acceptable substitute for PH-UY 2023 or PH-UY 2033) Electric forces and fields. Electric potential and capacitance. Electric current. Magnetic forces and fields. Faradays law and inductance. Maxwell's Theory of Electromagnetism. Electromagnetic waves. Light and Color. Geometrical optics. Image Formation. Interference and diffraction.

Prerequisite(s): PH-UY 1213; Co-requisite: EX-UY 1. - 1 Credits General Physics Laboratory I PH-UY2121
- PH-UY 2121 General Physics Laboratory I (0.5:1:0:1). An introductory level experimental course. Fundamental laboratory experiments in classical mechanics and electrostatics. Stresses basic experimental techniques, error analysis, and written presentation of experiment results. Experiments require progressively more detailed and sophisticated analysis. This laboratory class meets for three hours on alternate weeks.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 1013 and MA-UY 1124 or equivalent. Co-requisite: PH-UY 2023. - 3 Credits Electricity, Magnetism, & Fluids PH-UY2023
- This is the second course of a three-semester lecture sequence in general physics for science and engineering students. Fluids at rest and in motion. An introduction to electric and magnetic forces and fields. Electric charge density. Electric fields from simple charge distributions. Electric potential. Capacitance. Magnetic forces. Magnetic field from a current loop. Inductance. Magnetism in matter. Current and resistance. (This class meets four hours per week for lectures and recitation.)

Prerequisites: PH-UY 1013 and MA-UY 1124 or an approved equivalent. Co-requisite: EX-UY 1 - 1 Credits General Physics Laboratory II PH-UY2131
- PH 2131 General Physics Laboratory II (0.5:1:0:1). The second part of the introductory physics laboratory program. Fundamental laboratory experiments in E&M, waves, optics, and thermodynamics. Stresses experimental models and design, error and data analysis. This laboratory class meets for three hours on alternate weeks.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2121 and PH-UY 2023. Corequisite: PH-UY 2033 - 3 Credits Waves, Optics, & Thermodynamics PH-UY2033
- This is the third course of a three-semester lecture sequence in general physics for science and engineering students. Water, sound and electromagnetic waves. Reflection, scattering and absorption. Standing waves and spectra. Superposition, diffraction and beats. Geometrical optics. Introduction to thermodynamics; temperature, heat, and entropy. (This class meets four hours per week for lectures and recitation.)

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2121 and PH-UY 2023. Co-requisites: EX-UY 1. - 4 Credits Analytical Mechanics PH-UY2104
- The course covers statics by virtual work and potential energy methods. Stability of equilibrium. Particle dynamics, harmonic oscillator and planetary motion. Rigid body dynamics in two and three dimensions. Lagrangian mechanics. Dynamics of oscillating systems.

Prerequisite: PH-UY 2023; Co-requisite: MA-UY 2034 - 4 Credits Introduction to Modern and Solid State Physics PH-UY2344
- Special theory of relativity, Michelson Morley experiment. Planck's quantum hypothesis, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, Rutherford scattering, Bohr's atom, DeBroglie wavelength, electron diffraction, wave function, uncertainty principle, Schrodinger equation. Application to: square well potential, one electron atom. Atomic nucleus, fission and fusion. Energy bands in a periodic lattice, Kronig Penney model, valence, conduction bands, impurity states, electron mobility. Semiconductor properties. Introduction to superconductivity; electron pairs, energy gap, Josephson effect.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2023; Co-requisite: PH-UY 2033 and MA-UY 2034. - 3 Credits Astronomy and Astrophysics PH-UY2813
- This course covers historical development of observational astronomy. Traditional and modern observational techniques. Theories of formation and evolution of stars, planets and galaxies. Current developments in astronomy, cosmology and astrophysics.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2131 and PH-UY 2033. - 3 Credits Geology and Geophysics PH-UY2823
- An introduction to physical geology, familiarizing students with basic geological processes, and emphasizing the interdisciplinary interactions involved.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 1013 - 2 Credits Junior Physics Laboratory PH-UY3002
- An intermediate level laboratory course providing in depth exposure to a selection of classic physics experiments. Students' experimental skill set is expanded and data analysis and communication skills developed.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2131 and PH-UY 2033; Co-requisites: PH-UY 2344 and MA-UY 2224. - 4 Credits Introduction to Polymer Physics PH-UY3054
- This course introduces polymer physics and its applications in engineering. The course includes polymer assemblies, morphology and motion, mechanical and dielectric response, transitions and relaxations, time-temperature equivalence, yield and fracture, conducting polymers, optics of polymers, oriented structures, nanofibers, composites.

Prerequisite: PH-UY 1013 and CM-UY1004 (or CM-UY 1014); Co-requisite: PH-UY 2023. - 3 Credits Fundamentals of Applied Nuclear Physics PH-UY3103
- This course surveys the fundamentals of nuclear physics with application to nuclear engineering. Topics include an introduction to quantum mechanics, nuclear forces and nuclear structure, nuclear stability and reactions, natural and induced radioactivity.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2033, MA-UY 2034, and CM-UY 1004 (or CM-UY 1024). - 4 Credits Electricity and Magnetism PH-UY3234
- The course covers properties of the electrostatic, magnetostatic and electromagnetic field in vacuum and in material media. Maxwell's equations with applications to elementary problems.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2033 and MA-UY 2114. - 4 Credits Concepts of Nanotechnology PH-UY3244
- This course is the first of an interdisciplinary, two-semester sequence on concepts, techniques and applications of nanotechnology. Introduction to nanotechnology, examples of nanoscale systems. Systematics in miniaturization from the mm to the nm scale. Limits to miniaturization. Quantum concepts and elementary Schrodinger theory. Quantum effects in the behavior of chemical matter. Examples of self-assembled nanosystems from nature and from contemporary industrial products.

Prerequisite: PH-UY 2004 or PH-UY 2033. - 4 Credits Light and Lighting PH-UY3424
- The course explores physical concepts in conversion of electric energy into visible light. Nature of light. Visualization of light. Principles of operation and characteristics of modern light sources. Incandescent and tungsten halogen lamps. Fluorescent mercury lamps. Low-pressure sodium lamps. High intensity discharge (HID) lamps. Solid-state light sources. Latest trends in lighting technology. (Crosslisted as EE-UY 3424.)

Prerequisites: CM-UY 1004, and PH-UY 2033 or PH-UY 2004. - 4 Credits Introduction to Modern Optics PH-UY3474
- This course covers the physics of optics using both classical and semi-classical descriptions. The classical and quantum interactions of light with matter. Diffraction of waves and wave packets by obstacles. Fourier transform optics, holography, Fourier transform spectroscopy. Coherence and quantum aspects of light. Geometrical optics. Matrix optics. Crystal optics. Introduction to electro-optics and nonlinear optics.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2131 and PH-UY 2033. - 3 Credits Introduction to Radiation Physics and Dosimetry PH-UY3503
- The course examines the basic theory and practice of Radiation and Health Physics. Atomic and nuclear radiation. X-ray and gamma radiation. Interaction of radiation with matter, and the effects on living tissue. Principles of radiation detection, radiation measurement, external and internal dosimetry. Radiation Protection.

Prerequisite: PH-UY 2023. - 3 Credits Nuclear and Radiation Instrumentation and Methods PH-UY3513
- An intermediate level undergraduate course focusing on the theory and practice of nuclear and radiation measurements and instrumentation. Detector properties and principles, pulse electronics and counting statistics will be discussed in detail in the lecture classes. The experiments will illustrate the lecture topics and compliment the companion theory courses. This course meets five hours per week.

Prerequisite: PH-UY 3103; Co-requisite: PH-UY 3503. - 3 Credits Mathematical Physics I PH-UY3603
- First course of two-semester lecture sequence in mathematical physics for undergraduate students in physics and engineering. Line, surface and volume integrals, gradient, divergence, and curl. Cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems. Tensors and tensor transformations. The Dirac delta function, and integrals and derivatives of the delta function. Functions of complex variables, analytic functions, and these residue theorem. Fourier series, integrals, and transforms.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2023 and MA-UY 2034; Co-requisites: PH-UY 2033 and MA-UY 2114. - 4 Credits Computational Physics PH-UY3614
- An introduction to numerical methods. Solving ordinary differential equations, root finding, fourier transforms, numerical integration, linear systems. Techniques are applied to projectile motion, oscillatory motion, planetary motion, potentials and fields, waves and quantum mechanics. This class meets four hours per week for lectures

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2344, CS-UY 1133 (or CS-UY 1114), and MA-UY 2034. - 3 Credits Mathematical Physics II PH-UY3703
- Second course of two-semester lecture sequence in mathematical physics for undergraduate students in physics and engineering. Review of ordinary differential equations, including first and second order linear equations. Series solutions of differential equations, involving Legendre polynomials, Bessel functions, Hermite functions, and Laguerre functions. Partial diffential equations, including Laplace's equation, the diffusion equation, the wave equation, and Poisson's equation. Integral transforms, including Laplace and Fourier Transforms, convolution, and Green functions.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2033 and PH-UY 3603. - 1 Credits Guided Studies in Physics PH-UY3801
- These guided studies courses in physics are supervised by staff member.

Prerequisites: Physics adviser approval. (Course may be repeated for additional credit.) - 2 Credits Guided Studies in Physics PH-UY3802
- These guided studies courses in physics are supervised by staff member.

Prerequisites: Physics adviser approval. (Course may be repeated for additional credit.) - 3 Credits Guided Studies in Physics PH-UY3803
- These guided studies courses in physics are supervised by staff member.

Prerequisites: Physics adviser approval. (Course may be repeated for additional credit.) - 4 Credits Guided Studies in Physics PH-UY3804
- These guided studies courses in physics are supervised by staff member.

Prerequisites: Physics adviser approval. (Course may be repeated for additional credit.) - 4 Credits Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics PH-UY4124
- The course covers fundamental laws of macroscopic thermodynamics, heat, internal energy and entropy. Topics include an introduction to statistical physics, and applications of Maxwell, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2344, MA-UY 2114, and MA-UY 2224. - 4 Credits Techniques and Applications of Nanotechnology PH-UY4244
- This is the second of a two-course sequence on concepts and techniques of nanotechnology. Novel function and performance can occur with materials or devices of size scales of one to 100 nanometers, a range extending from molecular scale to that of typical linewidths in contemporary microelectronics. Nanosystems may provide entirely new functions, by virtue of access enabled by the small size. Photo and x-ray lithographic patterning. Scanning probe microscopes for observation and for fabrication. Molecular machines as envisioned by Drexler. The role of Van der Waals force. Questions of machine manufacturability on the nm scale. The IBM GMR hard-drive read head. Micro- and nano-electromechanical devices and systems. Single-electron electronics. Molecular electronics.

Prerequisite: PH-UY 3244. - 4 Credits Introduction to the Quantum Theory PH-UY4364
- The course introduces quantitative introduction to the quantum theory, which describes understanding light, electrons, atoms, nuclei and solid matter. Superposition principle, expectation values, momentum operator and wave function, duality, current vector, Hermitian operators, angular momentum, solution of the radial equation, electron in a magnetic field, perturbation theory, WKB approximation, identical particles. Applications include alpha decay, electrons in a periodic lattice, hydrogen spectrum, helium atom, neutron-proton scattering, and quark model of baryons.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2344, MA-UY 2114, and MA-UY 2224. - 4 Credits Quantum Optics PH-UY4444
- Beginning with a review of classical optics and quantum mechanics, this course covers foundations of spectroscopy, including atomic transition rates, selection rules and spectral line shapes. The course explores the quantum nature of light. Topics include photon statistics, coherent states, squeezed light, resonant light-atom interactions, atoms in cavities and laser cooling.

Prerequisite: PH-UY 3474. - 4 Credits Solid State Physics PH-UY4554
- The course covers basic concepts in condensed matter physics and preparation for the advanced quantum theory of solid state.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2344, MA-UY 2114, and MA-UY 2224. - 1 Credits Special Topics in Physics PH-UY4601
- Variable credit special topics courses in physics.

Prerequisites: PH 2344 and Physics adviser approval. (Course may be repeated for additional credit.) - 2 Credits Special Topics in Physics PH-UY4602
- Variable credit special topics courses in physics.

Prerequisites: PH 2344 and Physics adviser approval. (Course may be repeated for additional credit.) - 3 Credits Special Topics in Physics PH-UY4603
- Variable credit special topics courses in physics.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2344 and Physics adviser approval. (Course may be repeated for additional credit.) - 4 Credits Special Topics in Physics PH-UY4604
- Variable credit special topics courses in physics.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2344 and Physics adviser approval. (Course may be repeated for additional credit.) - 2 Credits Introduction to Senior Project in Physics PH-UY4902
- A qualified senior physics student or group of students work with a faculty member (and possibly graduate students) on an advanced problem in physics. In this introductory phase the student(s) and adviser select a suitable theoretical or experimental problem in the subject area and use various resources to solve it.
- 4 Credits Senior Project in Physics PH-UY4904
- In the project's concluding phase, senior physics students or group of students work with a faculty member (and possibly graduate students) to solve an advanced problem in interdisciplinary physics. The conclusion of the project is a written report and an oral presentation made to the supervising faculty.

Prerequisite: PH-UY 4902 - 2 Credits Senior Seminar in Physics PH-UY4912
- Senior physics students, in consultation with the instructor, study and prepare presentations on several current research topics in the general area of interdisciplinary physics. Students? performance is based on the mastery of the material chosen and also on the quality of the presentation made to the instructor and the seminar members.
- 4 Credits Bachelor's Thesis in Physics PH-UY4994
- Cannot receive credits for both PH-UY 4904 and PH-UY 4994.

## Graduate

- 3 Credits Physical Basis of Nanotechnology PH-GY5343
- This course focuses on the underlying physical basis of nanotechnology. Introduction to nanotechnology, examples of nanoscale systems. Systematics in miniaturization from the mm to the nm scale. Limits to miniaturization. Quantum concepts and elementary Schrodinger theory. Quantum effects in the behavior of chemical matter. Examples of self-assembled nanosystems from nature and from contemporary industrial products.

Prerequisite: PH-UY 2004 or PH-UY 2033 - 3 Credits Physical Techniques and Application of Nanotechnology PH-GY5443
- This course focuses on physical techniques and applications of nanotechnology. Scanning probe microscopes for observation and fabrication. Photolithographic methods of patterning, deposition techniques. Dense memory based on arrays of cantilevers. Magnetic Tunnel Junctions as elements of magnetic disc memory read heads and in Magnetic Random Access Memory. Nanoscale high-electric-field devices. Nanoscale confinement techniques and devices. Applications of carbon nanotubes and semiconductor nanowires. Assembly methods for nanoscale objects.

Prerequisite: PH-UY 2004 or PH-UY 2033 - 3 Credits Modern Optics PH-GY5473
- The course covers the physics of optics, using both classical and semi-classical descriptions. Topics include the classical and quantum interactions of light with matter. Diffraction of waves and wave packets by obstacles. Fourier transform optics, holography, Fourier transform spectroscopy. Coherence and quantum aspects of light. Geometrical optics. Matrix optics. Crystal optics. Introduction to electro-optics and nonlinear optics.

Prerequisites: MA-UY 2122 and PH-UY 3234 equivalents. - 1 Credits Modern Optics Lab PH-GY5481
- The modern optics laboratory includes experimental investigations into laser modes, velocity of light by time-of-flight, Fourier optics, holography, Fourier transform spectroscopy, crystal optics and nonlinear optics.

Corequisite: PH-UY 5473 or equivalent. - 3 Credits Physics of Nanoelectronics PH-GY5493
- This course covers limits to the ongoing miniaturization (Moore's Law) of the successful silicon-device technology imposed by physical limitations of energy dissipation, quantum tunneling and discrete quantum electron states. Quantum physical concepts and elementary Schrodinger theory. Conductance quantum and magnetic flux quantum. Alternative physical concepts appropriate for devices of size scales of 1 to 10 nanometers, emphasizing role of power dissipation. Tunnel diode, resonant tunnel diode, electron wave transistor; spin valve, tunnel valve, magnetic disk and random access memory; single electron transistor, molecular crossbar latch, quantum cellular automata including molecular and magnetic realizations. Josephson junction and ?rapid single flux quantum? computation. Photo- and x-ray lithographic patterning, electron beam patterning, scanning probe microscopes for observation and for fabrication; cantilever array as dense memory, use of carbon nanotubes and of DNA and related biological elements as building blocks and in self-assembly strategies.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2023 - 3 Credits Physics of Quantum Computing PH-GY5553
- This course explores limits to the performance of binary computers, traveling salesman and factorization problems, security of encryption. The concept of the quantum computer based on linear superposition of basis states. The information content of the qubit. Algorithmic improvements enabled in the hypothetical quantum computer. Isolated two-level quantum systems, the principle of linear superposition as well established. Coherence as a limit on quantum computer realization. Introduction of concepts underlying the present approaches to realizing qubits (singly and in interaction) based on physical systems. The systems in present consideration are based on light photons in fiber optic systems; electron charges in double well potentials, analogous to the hydrogen molecular ion; nuclear spins manipulated via the electron-nuclear spin interaction, and systems of ions such as Be and Cd which are trapped in linear arrays using methods of ultra-high vacuum, radiofrequency trapping and laser-based cooling and manipulation of atomic states. Summary and comparison of the several approaches.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2004 or PH-UY 2033 - 3 Credits Physics of Alternative Energy PH-GY5663
- The course examines non-petroleum sources of energy including photovoltaic cells, photocatalytic generators of hydrogen from water, and nuclear fusion reactors. The advanced physics of these emerging technical areas are introduced in this course. Semiconductor junctions, optical absorption in semiconductors, photovoltaic effect. Energy conversion efficiency of the silicon solar cell. Single crystal, polycrystal, and thin film types of solar cells. Excitons in bulk and in confined geometries. Excitons in energy transport within an absorbing structure. Methods of making photocatalytic surfaces and structures for water splitting. Conditions for nuclear fusion. Plasmas and plasma compression. The toroidal chamber with magnetic coils as it appears in recent designs. Nuclear fusion by laser compression (inertial fusion). Small scale exploratory approaches to fusion based on liquid compression and electric field ionization of deuterium gas.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 2004 or PH-UY 2033 - 3 Credits Theoretical Mechanics I PH-GY6153
- Principles of particle and rigid body dynamics. Lagrange's equations. Small vibrations of coupled systems, normal modes of oscillation.

Prerequisites: Graduate standing, or for undergraduates, PH-UY 2104 or equivalent and physics graduate advisor's approval. - 3 Credits Theoretical Mechanics II PH-GY6163
- Hamiltonian mechanics. Transformation theories of mechanics including the Poisson Bracket and Hamilton-Jacobi formulations. Lagrangian formulation of mechanics of continuous media.

Prerequisite: PH-GY 6153. - 3 Credits Electromagnetic Theory I PH-GY6243
- Electro- and Magneto-statics. Boundary value problems in three dimensions. Green's functions and multipole expansions. Polarization and magnetization. Scalar and vector potentials and gauges. Maxwell's equations.

Prerequisites: Graduate Standing, or for Undergraduates, PH-UY 3234 or equivalent and Physics Graduate Advisor approval. - 3 Credits Electromagnetic Theory II PH-GY6253
- Electromagnetic waves. Propagation in free space and in dielectric and conducting media. Polarization, dissipation and dispersion. Guided waves and cavities. Special Relativity. Scattering.

Prerequisites: PH-GY 6243 Electromagnetic Theory I - 3 Credits Physical Concepts of Polymer Nanocomposites PH-GY6403
- This course presents fundamental aspects of polymer nanocomposites and updates on recent advancements and modern applications. Topics include nanostructured materials; assembly at interfaces; interactions on surfaces; properties of polymer nanocomposites; reliability; nanodevices.
- 3 Credits Introduction to Solid-state Physics I PH-GY6513
- Phenomena and theory of physics of crystalline solids. Topics from thermal, magnetic, electrical and optical properties of metals, insulators and semiconductors.

Prerequisite: PH-UY 2344 or equivalent. - 3 Credits Introduction to Solid-state Physics II PH-GY6523
- Phenomena and theory of physics of crystalline solids. Topics from thermal, magnetic, electrical and optical properties of metals, insulators and semiconductors.

Prerequisite: PH-GY 6513 - 3 Credits Advanced Quantum Computing PH-GY6553
- Advanced topics in quantum computation are explored.

Prerequisites: PH-GY 5553. - 3 Credits Statistical Mechanics I PH-GY6633
- Equilibrium distributions. Relationships to laws of thermodynamics. Quantum effects. Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein distributions. Applications to bulk properties phenomena using Boltzmann transport equation.

Prerequisites: PH-UY 4364 or PH-GY 6673 - 3 Credits Statistical Mechanics II PH-GY6643
- Micro-, macro-, and grand-canonical ensembles and principles of classical statistical mechanics. Condensation phenomena. Treatment of fluctuation and transport phenomena. Density matrix formalism of quantum statistical mechanics. Many-body problems.

Prerequisites: PH-GY 6633. - 3 Credits Quantum Mechanics I PH-GY6673
- Quantum mechanics with applications to atomic systems. The use of Schrodinger's equations. Angular momentum and spin. Semi-classical theory of field-matter interaction.

Prerequisites: MA-UY 2114, PH-UY 3234 equivalents. - 3 Credits Quantum Mechanics II PH-GY6683
- Quantum mechanics with applications to atomic systems. The use of Schrodinger's equations. Angular momentum and spin. Semi-classical theory of field-matter interaction.

Prerequisites PH-GY 6673. - 3 Credits Selected Topics in Advanced Physics PH-GY8013
- Current or advanced topics of particular interest to graduate students are examined. Subject matter is determined each year by students and faculty. The course may be given in more than one section. Consult department office for current offerings.

Note: this course is not offered every semester. - 3 Credits Selected Topics in Advanced Physics PH-GY8023
- Current or advanced topics of particular interest to graduate students are examined. Subject matter is determined each year by students and faculty. The course may be given in more than one section. Consult department office for current offerings.

Note: this course is not offered every semester. - 1.5 Credits Graduate Seminar I PH-GY9531
- Students presenting current topics in Physics in a seminar setting to other students and supervising faculty. Topics chosen by the student with guidance from faculty.
- 1.5 Credits Graduate Seminar II PH-GY9541
- Students presenting current topics in Physics in a seminar setting to other students and supervising faculty. Topics chosen by the student with guidance from faculty.
- Readings in Applied Physics PH-GY955X
- These guided studies courses in physics are supervised by faculty member.

Prerequisite: Graduate Physics advisor approval. Note: Course may be repeated for additional credit. - MS Project in Applied Physics PH-GY996X
- This project course in applied physics is supervised by a faculty member. A written project proposal and final report must be submitted to the department chair and the advisor, and may be extended to a thesis with the project advisor's recommendation.

Prerequisite: Advisor Approval - MS Thesis in Applied Physics PH-GY997X
- Independent research project performed under guidance of thesis advisor. Bound thesis volume and oral defense in presence of at least three faculty members. Continuous registration with total 9 credits required.
- PhD Dissertation in Applied Physics PH-GY999X
- An original investigation in some branch of physics, which may serve as basis for the PhD degree, is performed under the direction of a member of the department. The number of research credits registered for each semester should realistically reflect the time devoted to research.

Prerequisites: Passing grade in RE-GY 9990 PhD Qualifying Exam, degree status and graduate advisers and research director's consent.

The courses PH-GY 5493, 5553 and 5663 are cross listed with the ECE courses EL-GY 5533, 5553 and 5663 respectively.