Applied Research Innovations in Science and Engineering (ARISE)
ARISE 2016 Colloquium Venue 2: RH-203
Shukai Zhong, Chrislie Roselin
Lab: Systems Proteomics Lab
Faculty: Prof. Christine Vogel
Mentor: Shuvadeep Maity and Songhee Back
Time: 10:00 am – 10:20 am
Intracellular organelles, such as mitochondria or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), have highly dynamic structures and interact with each other in response to intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Thus, they are an integral part of the cellular physiology, and the contact sites between the mitochondrion and the ER is a hub of molecular exchange. If this interaction is perturbed, cellular function is severely affected, which eventually might underlie diseases such as those of the neuronal system. To study the interaction dynamics between the mitochondria and the ER, we will design different fluorescent reporter protein based constructs to visualize the dynamics between the organelles. We will develop the reporter based neuronal cell line to measure the changes in abundance under different conditions.
In underdeveloped countries, the diagnosis of diseases is difficult due to the lack of medical professionals and efficient ways to obtain samples from the patients. The innovation of new technology that combines mobile networks with diagnosis tools could help to overcome geographic limitations. However, understanding is needed in order to transform how we remotely diagnose patients. This research work, a collaboration with Alexapath, Inc. in the NYU Incubator Program, will help to design and optimize an appropriate way to integrate mobile devices with microscopy. We anticipate the outcomes of this project will help society by controlling epidemic disease via rapid diagnosis.
3D printing, is one the most fast growing sectors among many industries from aerospace, architecture, and automotive to biomedical and dental. It has been transformed from being merely a prototyping tool to producing end-use parts. In this project, we will use FDM (Fused Deposition modelling), which is one of the most popular and common 3D printing techniques. The project will include 3D modeling, software package learning, printing prototypes and product analysis to understand the contributing parameters and their significance to each step and to the final product. By studying the 3D printing process, the student can gain more insight and details about this latest technology and development of complex objects to understand the limits and capabilities of this method to print high quality parts.
Meiosis is a process that enables sexually reproducing organisms to pass their genome (DNA) on to the next generation. Errors in meiosis are a leading cause of infertility, spontaneous fetal loss and birth defects. DNA breakage and repair are integral to proper completion of meiosis and genome integrity. The research aims to discover novel genetic interactions for maintaining genome integrity during meiosis. This research is performed in the single-celled baker’s yeast to take advantage of the fast growth and comparatively simple genome organization of this organism but will provide a better understanding of meiosis in humans.
Lightweight magnesium alloys are excellent candidates for several structural applications in the aerospace industries. Using magnesium alloys, it is possible to design lighter structural components such as seat frames, which give rise to improved fuel efficiency of vehicles and airplanes and reduced greenhouse gas emission. In this study, we will study a magnesium alloy named WE43. Microstructure of the as-cast and heat treated WE43 will be evaluated. The project will include optical microscopy, grain size measurement, and corrosion test to understand the effect of heat treatment. From the results, the corrosion behavior under different aging and temperatures can be understood.
Zelda (Zld) is an important transcription factors and regulates the expression of hundreds of target genes during embryogenesis. It has been shown that zld is also expressed in the larval stages,especially in the imaginal discs, which will develop into adult structures such as the eyes. zld is specifically expressed in the undifferentiated cells in the eye disc. We will remove zld transcripts in that domain and test several genes that are important for eye disc development. These experiments will determine the function of Zld in the larval stage.
Living hominoids (apes and humans) are adapted to upright posture, reflected in a suite of changes to the thorax, upper limb, lower back, and pelvis that together contribute to a distinct body plan compared to other primates and mammals. The purpose of this project is to revisit the hypothesis that tail loss, arguably the only derived trait shared by all hominoids, occurred to accommodate the evolution of upright posture. To test this hypothesis, we will collect cross-sectional data from 3D laser scans of monkey, ape, and human lumbar vertebrae, which are known to reflect weight transmission in upright posture. Casts of fossil apes that lack tails but are thought to retain primitive, monkey-like body plans (i.e., do not appear to be adapted to upright posture) will also be included and interpreted in light of results of living primates. If the fossil apes are found to share adaptations to upright posture with hominoids to the exclusion of non-hominoid primates, the hypothesis that tail loss and upright posture coevolved will be supported; if they do not, it will be rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis that tail loss and the evolution of upright posture are not causally related.
Modern humans have a difficult time giving birth because the neonate’s head is as large as the mother’s birth canal. Why hasn’t selection favored a more capacious birth canal to make birth less dangerous? This conundrum is termed the “obstetrical dilemma”. Several hypotheses have been proposed, such as that a wider pelvis increases the cost of locomotion, or that a wider pelvis is antagonistic to effective thermoregulation in hot climates. These hypotheses rely upon the relationship between hip width and dimensions of the birth canal. While it has been shown that hip width corresponds to the transverse dimensions of the birth canal, it is not clear whether narrow hips lead to an overall constricted birth canal and thus a harder time giving birth. This project will test the relationship between hip width (bi-iliac breadth) and the capacity of the birth canal at the inlet, midplane and outlet. Three-dimensional laser scans of pelves from the Point Hope Collection and the Medical Collection at the American Museum of Natural History will be processed and measured to determine if there is a correlation between bi-iliac breadth and birth canal constriction.
Zelda (Zld) is a master transcription factor regulating gene expression during Drosophila embryogenesis. Zld has six zinc finger domains; four zinc fingers are known to be important for DNA binding. Two more zinc fingers have not yet been studied very well. We will test the zinc finger function by using a genetic rescue essay with embryos carrying mutated proteins and test gene expression of several Zld targets to determine whether those fingers are required for proper function of Zld in early embryogenesis.
We will leverage mechatronics, engineering, and mathematics concepts for developing cost-effective and portable solutions for stroke rehabilitation. We will be developing smartphone applications that communicate with rehabilitative devices enabling data logging, visualization, and tele-rehabilitation. Our integral portion in the development of these devices will be focused on implementing secure network protocols for remote data access and tele-rehabilitation. We are excited to work on developing these devices which prospectively will improve the quality of life (QoL) of several stroke victims globally by reducing their dependency.