This course explores limits to the performance of binary computers, traveling salesman and factorization problems, security of encryption. The concept of the quantum computer based on linear superposition of basis states. The information content of the qubit. Algorithmic improvements enabled in the hypothetical quantum computer. Isolated two-level quantum systems, the principle of linear superposition as well established. Coherence as a limit on quantum computer realization. Introduction of concepts underlying the present approaches to realizing qubits (singly and in interaction) based on physical systems. The systems in present consideration are based on light photons in fiber optic systems; electron charges in double well potentials, analogous to the hydrogen molecular ion; nuclear spins manipulated via the electron-nuclear spin interaction, and systems of ions such as Be and Cd which are trapped in linear arrays using methods of ultra-high vacuum, radiofrequency trapping and laser-based cooling and manipulation of atomic states. Summary and comparison of the several approaches.
Prerequisites: PH2004 or PH2033